Meat pigs: photos and description
Meat breeds of pigs are considered the most profitable for breeding. These animals grow quickly, and their meat is characterized by higher taste and quality indicators in comparison with meat and greasy breeds.
Features of meat breeds
Distinctive features of meat representatives:
- lightweight skull;
- elongated, with well-defined muscles, trunk;
- narrowed sacrum and withers;
- elongated limbs;
- the fatty layer is evenly distributed between the muscle fibers;
Meat breeds of pigs
The division of pigs into meat and meat-greasy breeds is considered conditional, since the quality of meat is more dependent on the nutrition of these animals. Marble meat can be obtained from any breed.
Representatives of different directions are distinguished by such signs:
- muscle gain rate;
- features of nutrition and care.
The front of the body in these animals is highly developed, but at the same time it loses ham in flesh. The tail is short, twisted in a spiral.
Important! Pigs of meat direction sent for slaughter at 6–8 months after they reach a weight of 70 kg or more. If you do this later, the taste of the meat will be much worse.
Consider the most common breeds of meat pigs and their characteristics.
The species was bred as a result of crossbreeding of Guinean, Portuguese and Spanish pig breeds, due to which it got its bright brown color. Individuals are distinguished by a large physique. The back is arched. The length of the body reaches 180-185 cm. The legs are long, muscular. The head is small, neat. The ears are large, bent forward, and the lobes hang down to the sides.
Boars at 6 months reach a weight of 110 kg, females - 100 kg. The sow leads 11–13 piglets weighing 1.2 kg. The meat yield is 70%.
The breed was obtained as a result of the backross of a large white and Danish fold. Landrace is characterized by the presence of large ears hanging down. An adult has an elongated body that looks like a torpedo. In length, the pig can reach 2 m.
Important! Purebred landrace are characterized by weak legs, low endurance, therefore they are used for the most part to improve the genetic qualities of local species by backcrossing.
The legs are low, with the extended femur. Thin pink skin is covered with rare whitish bristles.
At six months, piglets reach a weight of 100–120 kg. Sows give 9 pigs weighing 1.3 kg. The net yield of meat from the carcass is 70%.
The variety was obtained as a result of the backcross of large English and Bekshir pigs. Representatives are distinguished by a broad back and large hams. The ears are compact, erect.
- black and white.
The fertility of the breed is low. The female can bear 6-7 babies. By the age of 7 months, pietrens gain weight 130 kg. The meat yield is about 80%. Tribal males are used to improve the breed qualities of other varieties. The disadvantage is the high demands of animals for feed quality.
The oldest English species. The body of the Hampshire pig is elongated, set on short, powerful legs with straight hooves. Lightweight skull with neat erect ears. A characteristic feature is the black color with a wide white stripe passing through the sternum and forelimbs.
Fertility is low: the female carries up to 8 piglets. At 6–7 months, individuals reach a weight of 110–150 kg. The meat yield is 80%.
Unpretentious breed obtained by selection in Ukraine. It has a large physique.The skeleton is narrowed, the head is long with large ears hanging down. Pink leather is covered with white even bristles.
Females show good fertility: 11-12 babies are brought in one farrow. By 6 months, pigs reach a weight of 100 kg. The meat yield is 75–78%.
The homeland of the Temvors is England. They are characterized by pickiness in care and good endurance indicators. The representatives of the breed have a large physique, with a well-muscled skeleton. The head is elongated, with hanging ears, pointed shape. The skin is covered with bright red bristles.
For one farrow, the female leads 7-10 babies. By 6 months, animals reach a weight of 70–80 kg. The meat yield is 65%.
Vietnamese pigs are more compact in size from their kinsmen of the meat-tallow direction and have a higher meat yield from the carcass, reaching 85%. In addition to these qualities, Vietnamese women can boast record fertility indicators - 15-18 babies per farrow.
Vietnamese pigs are medium-sized, gray-black. The skeleton is narrow, well muscled. Squat legs, with even hooves. Adult males reach a weight of 150 kg, female - 100 kg.
A variety was obtained in Russia when crossing breeds of the North Caucasus and Pietrain. The body of a Don pig is wide. Squat legs, with well-developed hips. The color of the bristles is black and mottled.
By the age of six months, representatives of the breed reach a weight of 150 kg. Females are medium-fertile, for one farrow they bring 10-12 babies. The meat yield is 70%.
The breed was obtained as a result of improving the qualities of the old greasy Kemerovo variety. It features a wide sternum. The color is predominantly black, mottled individuals are less common.
Fertility indicators are average: 10–11 piglets. Weight by 6 months is 100-120 kg. The meat yield is 70%.
Large black animals are characterized by a loose body constitution. The color is black. A powerful body is planted on squat legs. Head elongated with half-hanging ears.
For one farrow, the female leads 10-13 babies. Weight at 6 months - 100 kg, meat yield - 70%.
Bred as a result of selection by crossing large white and local Kirov pigs of late maturity. The backbone of the animals is massive. The head is long with hanging ears.
Weight at 6 months - 100-150 kg. The sow leads 10-13 piglets, the survival rate of young animals is 80%.
Estonians, like other meat breeds, have a large physique. The body is set on short powerful legs with straight hooves. The color is white. The head is long with a concave profile. Weight at 6 months - 150 kg. The sow leads in one farrow up to 15 babies. The meat yield is 75–80%.
Did you know? An adult pig is able to run 1 km in 5 minutes, despite its large dimensions.
How to choose the meat breed of pigs when buying
When choosing high-breed meat pigs, be guided by the following rules:
- The breed must be adapted to the growing region.
- For the greatest benefit, give preference to species that do not require a special diet, less susceptible to the diseases characteristic of pigs.
- Estimate the parameters of precocity, fertility.
Appearance selection criteria:
- A healthy piglet is agile and nimble.
- Carefully inspect the back of the individual - the anus should be clean, without traces of manure, otherwise it is better to refuse the purchase.
- The piglet's bristles should be shiny and lay evenly, without bald spots.
- The back of a real meat individual is smooth, long, its muzzle is elongated.
Did you know? Pigs have their own speech that expresses emotions or desires. For communication, they use more than 20 different sound signals.
Features of the content of meat breeds
Fleshy pigs are a fast-growing variety that requires a special diet when feeding.Protein food should prevail in the menu of such animals, as well as a sufficient amount of calcium.
At high muscle growth rates, bone tissue does not develop so fast as to withstand the load. Therefore, with a deficiency of calcium and vitamins, meat individuals often break their legs.
Boars intended for slaughter must be castrated at the age of 1.5–2 months. This allows you to get tender meat without an unpleasant odor and speed up the mass gain. An important role in obtaining high-quality meat products is played by the conditions of detention. For meaty breeds, it is necessary to equip a capital insulated pigsty with a large area and provide them with a sufficient walk.
Important! If there is a large amount of carbohydrates in the diet, the meat pig will begin to grow fat, which will significantly reduce the quality of the meat and the income from it. A high content of green feed will lead to a decrease in body weight, which will also reduce productivity.