Brahma breed of chickens: description, care and feeding
Brama chicken is one of the most popular egg and meat breeds in the world. The view is notable for its rather large dimensions and amazing decorative characteristics in the form of a beautiful magnificent plumage. An article about what Brama looks like, what are the colors of the breed; listed productive qualities, as well as the nuances of maintenance and cultivation. All this information will help determine how suitable the Brama chicken is for your poultry farm.
The creators of the species are American breeders. It all started with the fact that in the middle of the 19th century Asian feathered leggings were brought from India to the USA. The Americans crossed the gray meat breed of Kokhinkhin with fighting Malay chicken and chittagong. The deduced species was nicknamed gray chittagong, presenting it at a farmer's presentation in the city of Boston in 1850. But such a name did not gain popularity.
In 1852, the Boston farmer-entrepreneur Barnham presented a new species of birds to Queen Victoria of Great Britain, calling him an ermine chicken of the brahmaputra breed. With the light hand of the ruler, the species quickly became popular throughout the European continent. Today, this bright little crook is known as brama.
Some farmers are impressed by the attractive appearance of the brahm, while others breed these birds in an effort to get more high-quality meat and large tasty eggs.
Poultry farmers emphasize the following exterior features of the brama:
|Head||Small, directly set|
|Crest||Underdeveloped, small, without teeth, three-row, without a sharp end|
|Neck||It has medium length and slight bend|
|Chest||Wide, very massive, protrudes forward|
|Stomach||Wide and tight|
|Tail||Wide, short, sticks up|
|Paws||Strong, covered with plumage, which is a feature of the breed, metatarsals yellow or gray|
|Plumage and color||Tough, abundant, adjacent to the body; depending on the subspecies plumage is characterized by various soft shades|
If you do not know how to distinguish a rooster of Brama breed from chicken, pay attention to the location of the tail and the dimensions of the birds. Chickens differ from roosters in smaller dimensions and a tail located somewhat horizontally.
Brahms do not differ in multifaceted temperament. The main feature of their character is restraint. These birds are passive and completely indifferent to everything that happens around. Roosters are also not marked by energetic temperament, but they turn out to be quite bold when their flock needs protection from strangers. Cocks do not suit causeless scandals.
Advantages and disadvantages
- These amazing creatures have positive qualities:
- individuals are unpretentious to living conditions (due to the thick feather cover they withstand frost and dampness);
- undemanding to the composition of the feed;
- gaining a lot of weight;
- They are characterized by good egg production, they bring eggs even in the winter months;
- have very beautiful external data;
- have a quiet, non-conflict temperament;
- can protect themselves from small predators.
- The minuses of the brah are negligible:
- they ripen rather late - the scabs begin egg laying from about nine months of age;
- females are poor mother hens;
- young growth slowly;
- are prone to obesity, the consequence of which can be a heart attack, a fall on his feet or spoilage of eggs when hatched.
Did you know? The record for longevity among chickens is 14 years old. That is how much the oldest “chicken” on the planet has turned out to be.
Brama chickens are represented by several varieties that differ in the plumage tone: black, white, blue, lavender are found.
The light subspecies is also called Colombian brahma. The main part of the feather cover is white with a silver tint. In adult birds, the tip of the tail and fly wings are painted in an intense black and green tone. A black stripe resembling a collar is clearly visible on the neck. The middle feather on the fingers and metatarsus is marked with black stripes. The females of the white brahma have white feathers on the belt, and the males have black feathers. The face, crest, and lobes are saturated red.
The feather cover of black hens is characterized by a dark tone with a distinct pattern. The feathers are gray in the body area, silver-white on the head, and black on the neck, with a distinct white border. On the body of a female bramah there is a very complex pattern resembling a crescent. The pattern consists of 2 or 3 black stripes repeating the line of the pen. Males are characterized by a different coloring - the head, neck and shoulders are silver-white, and the body and legs are black with a greenish tint.
The third subspecies of pomfret - grouse chicken - has a light fawn feather cover. The pen itself is characterized by a triple black-gray outline. The male has a back and head of red-red color, and legs, chest and stomach are black, with a greenish tint. Layers of this variety lay eggs with small brown spots on their shells.
The males and females of this subspecies have the same plumage color. Males stand out with darker plumage. The feather cover is loose, lush, tightly attached to the body. The hind limbs of the chicken are also covered with a fluff that creates the effect of the so-called panties. The collar is a few tones darker than the main coloring of the birds.
Brama Isabella, like all other varieties, is distinguished by the color of the feathers. The body is gray-blue, the head, neck and part of the back are white and yellow. The feather itself is fluffy. Feet and toes are also feathery and downy. The posture is proud, which is why the birds seem taller than they really are.
Regardless of the unpretentiousness of the brama, the most favorable conditions should be organized to ensure high egg production and maintain decorativeness.
Did you know? Domestic hens are descendants of modern dinosaurs, or rather, one of the largest predators on our planet - a tyrannosaurus.
The dwelling for keeping the bram should be a spacious room - the design should be carried out at the rate of 1 square meter for 4 individuals. As for the floor, it is desirable that it be wooden. It is better to refuse the earthen variant, since it will stain the beautiful plumage of the bird. In winter, it is recommended to cover the floor with sawdust. It is not necessary to heat the chicken coop, since the brahms tolerate winter well.
For adult chickens, the optimum temperature is plus 15–18 ° С. Also take care of good ventilation (but without drafts) and additional artificial lighting, especially in the cold months. The house should be equipped with nests for laying eggs and perches for resting. Nests are made in the form of boxes of wood, and the bottom is covered with hay or straw.
One nest is designed for 4 quotes. A vertical arrangement of 3-4 floors is the most optimal. The height from the floor to the first level should be about 60–80 cm. The perches for heavy brahms are made of a flat piece of wood with a width of at least 30 cm, which is pinned to the wall at a height of 40–50 cm. The room for the brahm must be kept clean and dry.
Feeding troughs, drinking bowls, ash baths
It is advisable to install specialized containers for feeding and drinking in a dwelling. Equip these devices in a place where all pets would have equal access (optimal feeding front is 10–12 cm per head).This measure will prevent the crowding out of weak individuals with stronger relatives.It is better not to place drinkers on the ground. To prevent water contamination, the tanks are suspended. In the house, you also need to install ash baths - special places where hens can "swim" in the ash. Gray-black dust is a good disinfectant that protects your pets from various parasites.
Important! Containers for feeding and watering must be placed so that the birds do not step in their feet. Getting the smallest dirt in food or water is fraught with problems with the intestines.
In addition to arranging a closed house, it is important to ensure that the birds have a courtyard for walking (for example, in the form of a fenced enclosure). By area, the courtyard should be at least 2-3 times larger than the chicken coop itself. Such a territory is necessary mainly for walking quotas in the warm season. Layers will move freely, but will not be able to escape long distances. As soon as the temperature drops below –10 ° C, it is forbidden to take birds for a walk.
From the seasonal molt of the brama, the appearance noticeably spoils. The change of plumage is an inevitable natural process. You can only contribute to the restoration of feather cover faster. To this end, provide good food to the quota, give them natural fish oil and vitamins.
A pause in laying eggs during the molting season is a natural occurrence. But even after restoration of the feather cover, the masonry may remain weak. This suggests that for the period of cold weather the female is on a well-deserved rest.
Herd replacement planned
To grow a healthy young flock to replace the parent, choose the largest eggs. And such samples of laying layers are postponed only in the second year of life. After three years, the chicken’s body ages, gets tired, the clutch is reduced to 40-50 eggs per year. Therefore, every three years, it is necessary to carry out a planned replacement of the flock.
What to feed
The laying of food and water for young and adult quotes is an activity that a farmer must conduct regularly and according to certain rules.
Young growth does not differ at high growth rates, so be sure to add feed of protein origin to grain mixtures. In order for the chickens to form properly, they cannot do without milk powder, whey, cottage cheese, boiled eggs, broths of meat and fish, meat and bone meal and fish meal, as well as crushed dried grass. A year-round source of organic substances for them is chopped green food, cabbage, carrots and pumpkin. Dry, wet and combined types of fattening are allowed.
Important! Make sure babies of Brama do not develop obesity. Excess weight affects the fragile joints of chickens, making them weak.
For feeding adults, a combined type of nutrition is usually used. The ground cereal mixture is quickly absorbed in the feathered organism. The main summer menu certainly includes greens, and the winter menu includes hay and grass meal. In the cold season, it is advisable to heat the food, and give only warm water.These measures will help maintain high egg production. Soybean meal is also useful, because in its composition it is 50% pure protein. As a wet component, use skim milk, meat broth, meat and bone meal, vitamin supplements.
Why the chickens don't rush
The reasons for the lack of eggs in the nests are different. It can be:
- a sharp change in food, a disturbed feeding regimen, as well as malnutrition (lack of important mineral or organic substances in the menu);
- water scarcity, especially in summer;
- uncomfortable air temperature in the barn (excessively hot or cold);
- wrong lighting mode in the house;
- the presence of stressful situations (for example, the appearance of a new individual in the family, a change in the place of walking, extraneous loud sounds, a change in the place of nesting);
- overwork (from the age of two, productivity begins to decline in quotes);
- seasonal molt or feather loss due to a lack of organic and mineral substances.
To restore (increase) the productivity of layers, observe the following rules:
- provide quotes with all the required foods (with enough green food);
- give your pets at least 4-5 days to adapt to a new home, new nests, newly-born members of the feathered family;
- provide birds with a comfortable environment and protection from external sources of stress and anxiety;
- organize the optimal temperature and light conditions in the barn (with warm air and enough light);
- every year replenish the stock with new individuals.