Oryol horses: description, characteristics and content of the breed
Even people completely alien to horse breeding, in one way or another, heard about the Oryol trotters. This horse breed became so familiar in literature, painting, cinema, memoirs and oral traditions that it has become an integral part of our history over the past 200 years. The merits and distinguishing features of the Oryol trotters will be discussed in the article.
In the second half of the 18th century, Count Aleksey Orlov solved a problem that was becoming ever more obvious: Russia, with its vast expanses, urgently needed a horse that combined resistance to impassability and harsh climate with speed. All the horses available at that time were either well adapted to local conditions, but slow-moving, or soon ran, but quickly got tired and succumbed to the difficulties of the road and climate.
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The difficult task facing the count, he successfully solved at his own stud farm by crossing the Arabian stallion Smetanka and a mare of Danish origin, purchased for a gigantic amount, from the Turks. Their foal named Bars I became the founder of a new breed of Oryol trotters.
The main property of the Oryol horses is their high-quality trotting run. But this feature of these horses is not limited. They also manifest such qualities:
- the ability to reliably transmit this innate skill by inheritance;
- good adaptability to different climatic conditions;
- unpretentiousness in the content and nutrition, which was especially appreciated in a combat situation;
- magnificent appearance, which causes a person to have positive emotions even before the horse has time to demonstrate the rest of its strengths.
Description of appearance
The exterior of the Oryol trotter is impressive: high growth, powerful physique, half a ton weight and at the same time grace of body movements with innate grace. You can learn more about the appearance indicators of this horse from this table:
|Exterior Orlov trotter||Indicators|
|Height at the withers (m)||1,65-1,70|
|Torso length (m)||1,60|
|Chest circumference (m)||1,80|
|Girth in metacarpus (cm)||20,3|
|Head||Small, with a slightly protruding frontal part|
|Suit||Various options of gray color, as well as black, roan or bulan|
|Neck||Long, with a beautiful swan bend|
|Ears||Small and mobile|
|Eyes||Large, shiny, expressive|
|Tail||Long and thick|
|Legs||Medium length, dry and sinewy|
|Hooves||Large and strong|
Use and productive qualities
Creating his trotter breed, Alexey Orlov intended it, first of all, for work in a harness. The ability to move for a long time at good speed made the Oryol horses almost ideal harness animals. To these properties trotters were added and their magnificent appearance, which became the decoration of any crew.The Oryol trotters showed themselves as trotting horses at racetracks, walking horses under the saddle and like hunting ones. Currently, these horses are actively used in speed sports, as well as in competitions and dressage. They are very popular in equestrian tourism.
Character and temper
In the process of selection, the breeders managed to muffle the temper in their trotters inherent in their distant Arab ancestors.Oryol horses are distinguished by an exceptionally good-natured character, complaisance and unquestioningness in the execution of the owner's commands. With a cruel attitude to a person, they can be obstinate, but they do not possess vindictiveness and, with a normal attitude towards themselves, they obey a person willingly.
Did you know? Horse bones are not inferior to granite in strength. However, if they break down, they grow together extremely slowly, even in the sparing conditions of a veterinary clinic.
These animals are distinguished by their huge capacity for work. The question of how to teach these horses to run is not at all worth it. Not only do they never run away from work (as happens with horses of other breeds), but they themselves strive for it, to which they are driven by innate energy.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of the Oryol trotters include:
- ability to long-term trotting run;
- high speed qualities at the races;
- universality of their application;
- gene resistance when inheriting the qualities of a trotter;
- impressive appearance;
- tolerance to humans;
- calm disposition;
- ability to adapt to various climatic conditions;
- unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention and feeding;
- high reproduction.
- The disadvantages, among which there are no serious ones, are sometimes considered:
- the high cost of each individual;
- late adulthood (at the age of 4.5-5 years).
Maintenance and care
One of the main qualities, along with the steady trotting move that Count Orlov and his followers wanted, deriving the breed of the Orlov trotters, was the unpretentiousness of the animal. This was especially true with the participation of Orlovites in military campaigns. For the horses to live comfortably and to display their best qualities, they need care, proper maintenance and proper nutrition.
For such a large and energetic animal, a fairly spacious stable with stalls of 3 x 3 m is required. The temperature in winter can even drop to a minus temperature for a short time, and Oryol trotters and their foals carry it quite easily provided there is no draft at all. However, the horses feel more comfortable in the heat. , therefore, the walls of the stable are insulated (for example, with polystyrene foam), and litter is laid on a wooden floor with a layer of at least 20 cm from:
- dry peat.
Important! At night in the stable, for a good rest of the horses, darkness is required, so artificial lighting must be turned off at night.
Initially, leading the Oryol trotters, Count Orlov and his aides as the main food for them assumed whole oats in the winter and pasture in the warm season. For military campaigns, oats were more compact than hay, but in peaceful conditions, hay is quite suitable for high-grade feed of horses in the form of roughage. Today, a full-fledged diet of the Oryol trotter in summer consists of green grass with added oats, succulent feed, concentrates and salt.
In winter, horses are fed:
- mixed grass hay;
- oat straw;
- wheat and rye bran;
- stale bread;
- oilcake of different cultures;
- fodder yeast;
- fodder potatoes;
- mineral top dressing;
- vitamin supplements in the form of premixes.
It is not recommended to feed horses:
- fresh bread that causes fermentation and blockage of the intestine;
- cabbage, provoking gastric fermentation, leading to colic;
- fruits, with the exception of apples and watermelons;
- dried fruits, extremely dangerous for the digestive tract of horses;
- chips, biscuits and other human culinary inventions that are full of dyes, preservatives and other chemistry harmful to animals.
Foals immediately after birth are fed breast milk, which contains all the necessary nutrients. In the second month, they begin to be given daily 1 kg of flattened oats, bringing this amount to 2 kg by 4 months. There are hay foals taught by their mother by example.
Important! Horses, heated up by any serious loads, cannot be watered earlier than in one and a half to two hours.
They feed horses at least 3 times a day in winter, and twice a day in summer, taking into account pasture on pastures. Feeding begins with coarse feed, after which they give concentrates. They are watered three times a day, preceding the pond with giving roughage (and especially concentrates).
Care and hygiene
To maintain the excellent appearance of the Oryol trotter and its health, it is necessary to carry out daily care for it, which consists in the following:
- Wiping sweat with a dry towel.
- Brushing wool after each training with a special brush (brushing is usually started from the neck on the left side of the horse). Now many people clean their horses with special vacuum cleaners.
- Combing the tail and mane.
- Wash mane and tail with horse shampoo.
- Weekly bathing of animals by pouring warm water with soap alcohol and salt (use soft brushes).
- Inspection of the hooves after each serious physical exertion and lubrication with a mixture of lamb fat and turpentine.
- Providing horses with conditions for walking.
To maintain the health of the trotters, it is necessary not only to carefully care for them themselves, but also to monitor the hygienic cleanliness of their stalls. To do this, remove manure every day and change the contaminated litter (dry litter is the best way to avoid dermatitis).
It is also necessary at least once a week to clean the feeder and drinker with hot water and soda. The stall walls and partitions in it should also be regularly freed from pollution. For the prevention of diseases and first aid in case of problems with the health of the trotter, you should have a first-aid kit with:
- hoof ointment;
- a mixture of petroleum jelly and fish oil;
- alcohol with salt;
- hydrogen peroxide;
- camphor iodine;
- camphor alcohol;
Is it profitable to breed horses Oryol breed
Depending on the purity of the breed, pedigree, appearance, age and suit of the Oryol trotter, its cost can range from 1.5 thousand to 6 thousand dollars per individual. Specially trained horses for sports are even more expensive. So raising horses of this breed is quite profitable.
Famous representatives of the Oryol breed
In addition to the founders of the breed Smetanki and Barsa I, for more than two hundred years of their existence, the Oryol trotters have recorded many victories in various competitions and many horse nicknames that have forever entered the world history of horse breeding. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the name Krepysh rattled at the hippodromes, which out of 80 trotting races won 55.
After the war, horse lovers got another indisputable favorite named Kvadrat, who was distinguished by incredible perseverance in competitions, an exceptional will to win and at the same time had an almost perfect appearance.Two monuments were erected to the legendary stallion. To the glory of the Oryol breed, there were many horses bearing the names:
- Tidal bore;