Compound feed for cattle: composition, production technology
Nutrients and trace elements are necessary not only for people, but also for animals to ensure their health, active life and good performance when it comes to agricultural species. In this article you will learn about compound feeds that are used to feed cattle (cattle), their purpose, types, composition and how useful or harmful they are.
What is feed?
Feeding animals is a very important process that requires a lot of attention. In order for the cattle to not get sick, have good immunity and performance, it needs a high-quality and properly balanced diet. This is what compound feed is.
This is a mixture of plant components and ingredients of animal origin, which are combined in a certain balance. The proportion of components should be scientifically sound and contain vitamins, enzymes, micro and macro elements. Such a combined diet can be both the basis of the animal’s diet, and in addition to the basic diet.The composition of the feed depends on:
- what kind of animal the animal belongs to, since the combined feed for small pets will differ significantly from its variety for cattle;
- the age category to which the animal belongs, since the nutrition of young animals differs in composition from the diet for an adult cash cow or breeding bull;
- biological condition of livestock;
- directions (meat, dairy);
- degree of productivity.
Important! The recipe is created in accordance with scientifically sound data and can only be used for the type of animal for which it was developed.
Before you talk about what feed is made of, you should pay attention to the fact that the nutrition for each animal is selected individually, taking into account its need for certain elements and substances.
The main components of combined nutrition for cattle are:
- cereals, among which the most popular ones are barley, wheat, millet, corn, triticale. This group occupies almost 85% of the total composition;
- meal - pieces, cake of flax, sunflower, soy, which are obtained in the process of production of oils from plant seeds. Their share can reach 15-25%;
- legumes, which contain a large amount of protein - soy, beans, chickpeas, peas, lupins. These components can make up to 45% of some types of compound feeds;
- roughage containing fiber (hay and straw);
- grain industry waste;
- mineral elements and compositions;
- amino acids;
- fortified impurities;
- meat and bone meal;
- coniferous and herbal flour;
- meat and fish waste;
- highly purified salt;
- their chemical composition;
- the ability to assimilate in one or another combination.
When choosing feed, you should pay attention to it:
- nutritional value;
- protein content as a percentage. If it is not high, then the feed is not of very good quality, because it will not be able to satisfy the needs of the animal’s body, which varies depending on the age of the animal.
Using a balanced and correctly selected compound feed, you can increase the productivity of cows by 10%, if the compound feed contains vitamins, trace elements and stimulants, productivity can increase by 25-30%.
Did you know? Lick salt is a type of mineral dressing, the basis of which is sodium. It is often a component of feed, helping to improve the appetite of cattle, good absorption of food and, as a result, an increase in milk yield.Salt in the form of pressed blocks is suspended in the barn so that the animal has access to it as necessary.
Combined feeds, including feed grains, are used for milk-producing cows with the aim of obtaining fatty and high-quality milk:
- barley, the content of which should prevail in comparison with other components;
|Exchange energy||10 MJ|
|Crude fat||not less than 2.5%|
|Crude protein||no more than 7%|
|Methionine, not less||-|
|Methionine + cystine||-|
|Sodium Chloride||1—1,5 %|
The use of compound feed for cows increases the productivity and quality of dairy products.
For example, for dairy cows, the following products are used:
- "KK-60-1-1" - for cows with high productivity. Used in the period after calving and during coughing;
- "KK-60-1-2" - for milking during the period of crushing;
- "KK-60-1-3" - for dairy at the second stage of lactation.
It should be noted that the composition of compound feed for milking cows does not include bioactive additives that stimulate weight gain.
For the calf
The nutrition of calves under the age of 6 months is qualitatively different from the diet of adults. Starter compound feed, the basis of which is oats or oatmeal, is recommended to be used as an optimally balanced specialized version of feed for young animals.
The table below shows the quality requirements for feed for calves up to 4 months old.
|Exchange energy||11 MJ|
|Crude protein||not less than 20%|
|Crude fat||not less than 3.5%|
|Lysine||not less than 0.9%|
|Methionine + cystine||0,55 %|
|Sodium Chloride||0,4—0,5 %|
- a protein that provides full growth and vitality;
- fiber, which is responsible for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract;
- vitamins that increase immunity and strengthen the body;
- amino acids;
The following complexes can serve as an example of compound feed for young animals:
- "KK-62" - starter for young animals up to 4 months
- "KK-63" - a complex used after "KK-62" or "KR-2", which is recommended for calves up to 12 months;
- "KK-64" - for calves from 12 to 18 months;
- "KK-65" - for feeding pedigree young animals and heifers.
Advantages and disadvantages of use
The profitability of livestock production depends mainly on the quality of animal feed.
If we talk about the benefits of such nutrition for cattle, it should be noted:
- saving resources due to minimal consumption compared to using other types of feed to meet the same needs;
- rational use of food and vegetable waste, which, in purified and ground form, are used in the manufacture of combined feeds;
- the ability to include in the feed such elements that it is difficult or impossible to add to the diet of the animal separately;
- the ability to give the feed a convenient and attractive shape based on its type;
- safety from the point of view of sanitary standards, since it is easier to clean when hit on the floor in the barn, and parasites cannot start up in it;
- ease and convenience in transportation.
- good growth;
- strengthening the immune system through a combination of various elements and the use of fortified supplements;
- the appearance of a healthy and viable offspring;
- productivity growth of 10-12%.
- the difficulties of preparing it yourself at home;
- high price of some species;
- the need to adhere to the rules and dosage when feeding livestock;
- possible refusal of adults from this type of food, if they have not been accustomed from a young age to this form of food supply.
Standards and quality requirements
According to the regulations, manufacturers of feed must indicate its purpose and quality requirements on the packaging, where it should be accordingly indicated:
- name of the enterprise where the product was produced;
- recipe number;
- production date;
- shelf life.
The quality standard is the GOST standard, which for feeds sounds like GOST 9268-90 and GOST 9268-2015 in the updated version. Its main provisions are:
- compliance with moisture content of dry and briquetted forms, which should not exceed 14.5%;
- compliance with the percentage of components.
Compound feed production is mainly carried out by special plants and agricultural enterprises.
A document confirming compliance with GOST guarantees compliance with the stages of the production process:
- purification of components;
- grinding all components to a homogeneous mass;
- dosage of ingredients according to the recipe;
- mixing in a special device;
- packaging and labeling of finished products.
The raw materials are required to comply with sanitary standards, confirmed by regulatory documents.
In order to find out what type of animal the food is intended for, a special marking system is used. The letter abbreviation contains information about the purpose of the feed:
- "PC" - full-feed combined feed;
- “K” - concentrate;
- "BVD" - a protein-vitamin supplement;
- "WTC" - a substitute for whole milk;
- "P" is the premix.
For cattle, the KK index is used.
Also in the marking there are numbers:
- the first indicates the type of animal;
- the second is the serial number of the recipe.
Important! Cattle are unpretentious to the conditions of detention, but very sensitive to the quality of the feed, which can significantly affect its health, activity and productivity.
Compound feed distinguish:
- according to the form of release;
- by appointment.
The composition and form of the compound feed production largely depends on the purpose for which the animal will be used. For example, the nutrition of a cash cow and a breeding bull will have differences. Also, when choosing a combined feed, it is worth considering that the diet of a young calf will have certain differences in composition from the nutrition of an adult cow.
According to the form of release
This criterion is one of the main in the classification of animal feed.
So, for cows and bulls, the following release forms are used:
The technology for creating all forms is almost identical with the difference only in the final product.
For the production of feed used:
- chopper or mill;
- mechanical gearbox;
- granulator (if it is necessary to produce granules or briquettes);
- Shredding. To do this, all the ingredients are placed in a millstone of a stone mill and there by squeezing or grinding they turn into a fine homogeneous substance. A drum may also be used for grinding.
- Dosage. At this stage, the dosage and mixing of the components according to the compounding of the feed, as well as the addition of various additives: bone meal, vitamins, carbide, antibiotics.
- Mixing. It occurs using a special mechanism, which has blades rotating inside a horizontally located barrel and mixing all the elements to a homogeneous mass.
- Further production depends on the form of the final product..
The use of granules and briquettes is due to the minimization of mechanical losses, ease of transportation and storage.
After mixing all the crushed ingredients in the required proportion, according to the recipe, the manufacturing technology of bulk feed involves drying the resulting mass.
It should also be said that the loose form can be represented by 3 types of grinding:
The advantage of the loose form can certainly be called its availability and the absence of the need to make large financial investments in the purchase of the line, which is a necessity for other forms of production. It is also worth noting that the cost of bulk feed is significantly lower than other forms.
A granulator is used to create a granular form of release before the drying step. This device is a conical tube with a long screw having a large thread diameter along the upper edge, which is called a screw.
It is he who strongly compresses and rams all the ingredients, forming a dense and long rod. Since the connection between the components is not strong enough, the rod is quite fragile and, leaving the granulator, breaks into small pieces of a cylindrical shape.
The size of the granules depends on the age of the animal for which the food is intended, and may vary:
- in diameter 2.5—20 mm
- 4.7–40 mm long.
The advantage of this form of release can be called:
- convenience and long shelf life;
- ease of transportation;
- comfort at mechanical giving in farms;
- the uniformity and uniformity of the supply of all elements (the animal cannot independently choose the components that he likes more than others);
- has less loss during use, does not fall out of the feeders;
- well absorbed, better than feed mixtures in the usual form;
- with additional processing, pathogenic microflora is eliminated.
- be the same size;
- have one color;
- be dense texture when pressed with a finger.
The difference in the production of briquettes from granules is that before drying, a homogeneous crushed mixture of ingredients is sent under pressure. As a result, briquettes of various sizes are obtained, having the form of flat rectangular tiles.
To maintain the shape of the feed, molasses or molasses is used, which fastens the dry matter, the percentage of which should be at least 83%.
Important! For the manufacture of granules and briquettes, cereals are used in the stage of milk-wax and wax grain maturity.
Before use, the briquette is crushed, but the advantage of this form of manufacture can be called:
- ease of transportation;
- convenience of storage;
- long shelf life.
In accordance with the feed value, feed is of the following types:
This type of combined feed includes a complex of elements that can fully cover the needs of the animal species for which it is intended, with mineral, nutrient and biologically active substances.
When choosing a complete feed (PC) it is very important to take into account the needs of the group, for example:
- for the smallest calves, they select a pre-start PC that will help the kids grow well and increase their immunity;
- Starter PC is used later.
Complete feed is an excellent option for replacing grain mixtures, silage, hay, which are traditionally used on small farms, because it can increase livestock productivity and increase the profitability of the economy as a whole.
This type of feed is not complete and cannot be used independently as a substitute for the main food. This is an addition to traditional rough, succulent feeds and grain mixtures, which makes up for the shortage of certain nutrients.
The main characteristic of the concentrate is the high content:
- biologically active substances;
- trace elements.
- Carbohydrate, where the amount of carbohydrates is 70%. They usually consist of: corn, millet, barley, wheat.
- High protein, where protein makes up to 25% of the total mass. These feeds contain soy, peas, legumes, meal cake at the base.
Concentrated feed is used mainly in the winter, when a lack of nutrients can significantly reduce the protective properties of the body and adversely affect livestock health. Mass fraction of feed should not be more than 50%.
The concentrate is mixed with:
- root crops;
- drinking water in the form of porridge for calves.
For fattening, the volume of the concentrate is increased to 60–75%.
Feed additives come in the following varieties:
- protein and vitamin supplements (BVD);
- protein-vitamin-mineral (BMVD);
- super concentrates;
- fodder yeast;
- feed malt.
- high protein components;
- microadditives necessary for livestock;
- mineral salts;
- biologically active components.
Additives are not an independent feed, they are introduced into the diet in the amount of 20-25%.
This type of feed is a mixture of biologically active substances with a filler. They are used as a supplement to animal feed and protein-vitamin-mineral supplements, enriching their composition.
Premixes may contain:
- amino acids;
- stimulants (antibiotics);
- substances affecting the digestion and digestibility of the feed (enzymes, emulsifiers);
- may include medicinal components (sulfadimezin, furazolidone).
Premixes contribute to:
- improving immunity;
- growth stimulation.
- wheat bran;
- oilseed rape;
- soybean meal;
- fodder yeast.
The difference between premixes and additives is an extremely small proportion of their use. The number of premixes should not exceed 1% in the total mass of the grain mixture and 5-10% in the BVMD.
Premixes are often used for dairy cows, wanting to increase their productivity.
There are such types of premixes:
- vitamin and amino acid;
How to make homemade feed with your own hands?
The technological process of producing feed at home is not much different from industrial.It also consists of the following steps:
- Mixing the ingredients.
Powerful feed mixtures plants use powerful tools capable of producing large volumes of products. On your own farm you can use homemade grinding and mixing plants, designed to receive a small amount of feed.
There are several reasons why owners of livestock farms prefer to create compound feed on their own:
- Saving money, the ability to rationally use agricultural waste, food and vegetable.
- Personal quality control. By creating a mixture of ingredients with his own hand, the farmer can reliably have information about how much and what he put into the feed, what is the origin and quality of all the components.
There are several popular recipes for preparing feed at home.
- ground corn 15%;
- ground barley 20%;
- meal or sunflower meal 25%;
- wheat bran 15%;
- grass meal 25%;
- salt 0.5%;
- chalk 0.5%.
- beer grains;
- wheat bran;
A talker is made to ferment. Then it must be dried. This mixture can be stored for up to 12 months. It should not be given to bulls.
- whole corn 16%;
- oats with barley 17%;
- cereal bran 15%;
- meal 20%;
- meat flour 5%;
- salt 1%.
It can be:
- fodder beets;
Before using root vegetables, they are washed or cleaned from the ground and crushed. For 100 kg of cow weight, 15 kg of such a vegetable supplement are needed.
Did you know? In Western Europe and the USA, you can find cows with a hole in their sides. These animals are not sick and not injured, and the hole is a “window” that allows the farmer to visually control the digestive process. Poking his hand into such an artificial “window”, he can regulate the concentration of bacteria, monitor gas formation, and by opening it and providing an additional gas exchange path, help the animal cope with the discomfort of sensations during the digestion of large volumes of food.
How to make a diet?
Before moving on to the question of how much an adult cow or small calf eats per day, we draw your attention to the need for a proper livestock diet. To do this, consider the following recommendations of specialists:
- In the period when cows are in a large part of the time in the stall, coarse food should prevail in their diet, because it supplies the animal with nutrients, given the small volumes of milk yield.
- When cow yields increase, juicy and concentrated additives are added to the roughage.
- If the milk yield exceeds 10 kg per day, root crops, and especially potatoes, should also be added to the diet.
- Cows with high productivity should eat diverse, they need to be given mineral and vitamin components.
For the calf
Familiarity with the calf feed can only begin when he turns 10 days old. Until this time, he needs to be breastfed with breast milk. Starting from the specified day, starter compound feed is required, which is given in a dosage of 1 tablespoon per day.
The dry mixture is diluted in milk and a calf is given a drink. Further, the amount of special nutrition is gradually increasing, and by the age of four months its consumption rate increases to 1 kg. At the age of six months, the dose of feed consumption already reaches 6 kg.
Such nutrition contributes to the healthy growth of the calf and the strengthening of its immunity only if this norm is not exceeded.
For adult cattle
A dairy cow should eat well, and its diet should include the following types of feed:
The main thing is roughage. It should be freely available for the animal, however, it is necessary to monitor its cleanliness and freshness, updating it after each feeding, but at least 2 times a day. This is due to the fact that the feed is around the clock in the barn, absorbing the smell of waste products.
This type of food should have at least 6.3 MJ CHEL / kg SV. In the diet should be at least 40-50% of the main feed.
Balancing - a form of nutrition that regulates the amount of protein in roughage and compensates for the lack of vitamins and minerals in the main feed.
With an excess of protein in the main nutrition, a balancing one is used, which includes:
- rapeseed meal;
- soybean meal;
- grain bard;
- fresh and silage pellet.
The purpose of using this type of nutrition is to balance energy and nutrients that have a beneficial effect on cow productivity.
Productive feed - balanced nutrition, which helps to obtain the maximum amount of milk yield.
The volume of consumption of this feed should be calculated individually for each animal, since this indicator directly depends on such factors:
- animal productivity;
- health status, age.
There are rules, guided by which, you can calculate the feed consumption:
- the maximum portion of feed is 3-4 kg per feed. But if it is dominated by cereals rich in starch content, then no more than 2 kg;
- the feeding interval should be 4 hours;
- serve must be metered, in a certain sequence and at the agreed time;
- a portion of the feed depends on the volume of milk yield, for every 1.5-2 liters of which 1 kg of combined feed should be given to the dairy cow.